Entienda los impuestos en los EE. UU.

El sistema tributario de los Estados Unidos es una estructura compleja.

It consists of federal, state, and local taxes. Entender los aspectos básicos de este sistema es fundamental para que las personas y las empresas cumplan con sus obligaciones impositivas.  

This article provides an overview of the U.S. tax system, including information on filing tax returns, important deadlines, deductions and credits, and resources for tax assistance. 

Federal Taxes 

Income Taxes 

The federal government imposes income taxes on individuals, corporations, and other entities. Income tax rates are progressive, meaning they increase as income levels rise. Individuals must report their income and file federal tax returns each year. 

Payroll Taxes 

Payroll taxes fund programs like Social Security and Medicare. Employees and employers contribute to these taxes, with specific rates determined by income and employment status.  

Capital Gains Taxes 

Capital gains taxes apply to profits earned from the sale of assets such as stocks, bonds, and real estate. The rates for capital gains depend on the holding period and the individual's income. 

State Taxes 

Income Taxes 

Most states impose income taxes on individuals and sometimes on businesses. State income tax rates and rules vary, and some states have no income tax at all.  

Sales Taxes 

States also levy sales taxes on goods and services. Rates and exemptions differ by state, and some local jurisdictions may impose additional sales taxes.  

Property Taxes 

Property taxes are typically imposed by local governments but collected by states. These taxes are based on the assessed value of real estate and are used to fund local services and infrastructure. 

Local Taxes 

Property Taxes 

Local governments, such as counties and municipalities, collect property taxes to fund local services like schools, roads, and emergency services. Tax rates vary depending on the location and property value.  

Municipal Taxes 

Some cities impose additional taxes, such as city income taxes or local sales taxes, to generate revenue for local projects and services. 

Filing Tax Returns 

Federal Returns 

Individuals file federal tax returns using forms such as the 1040, 1040A, or 1040EZ. The deadline for filing federal tax returns is usually April 15th, but it may vary depending on weekends and holidays.  

State and Local Returns 

Taxpayers also need to file state and, if applicable, local tax returns. Deadlines for state and local returns may differ from the federal deadline. 

Deductions and Credits 

Standard Deduction 

Taxpayers can choose between itemizing deductions or taking the standard deduction, which is a specific dollar amount that the IRS lets you subtract from your adjusted gross income to lower the amount of income you get taxed on. How much of a standard deduction you're entitled to generally depends on your tax-filing status.Itemized deductions are basically individual expenses allowed by the IRS that can decrease your taxable income. 

Tax Credits 

Tax credits directly reduce the amount of tax owed. Examples include the Child Tax Credit, Earned Income Tax Credit, and education-related credits. 

Resources for Tax Assistance 

Internal Revenue Service (IRS) 

The IRS is the federal agency responsible for administering and enforcing federal tax laws. Their website ( provides tax forms, publications, and resources.  

State and Local Tax Authorities 

State and local tax agencies offer guidance and resources related to filing taxes in their respective jurisdictions.  

Tax Professionals 

Certified public accountants (CPAs) and tax preparers can provide professional assistance with tax preparation and planning. 

Understanding the U.S. tax system is essential for fulfilling tax obligations. It is important to consult the relevant tax authorities or professionals for detailed and up-to-date information regarding specific tax situations. 


The information provided on is intended for general informational purposes only. No debe tomarse como asesoramiento profesional ni reemplazar la orientación de un profesional.

Invirtiendo en todos

Su apoyo financiero ayudará a que la obtención de la ciudadanía sea más económica para millones de futuros estadounidenses.

Invierta hoy